Dorsal Morphology of the Calcaneus—An Osteological Study

Rebecca Murerwa, Thomas Amuti, Nikita Muuthuri, Anita Wambui, Innocent Ouko,Julius Ogeng’o

Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi,Kenya

Correspondence to: Thomas Amuti; email:


Background: The calcaneus exhibits variations in articular facets and calcaneal sulcus width. These variations influence occurrence of osteoarthritic conditions, whose prevalence is significant in our setting, and are essential during surgeries involving the foot. Despite this, local data on calcaneal facets remain scarce. Methods: Sixty calcanei were obtained from the National Museum of Kenya. The number, type and shapes of their facets were documented and calcaneal sulcus width measured. Images were taken and collected data were represented in tables and figures. Results: The calcanei had 1–3 articular facets. The common calcanei type noted was type 1B on the right calcaneus and 1B on the left. The least was type 4 on the right and 2C on the left. In terms of shape, types 1 and 4 calcanei had non-rounded facets while type 2 had rounded facets. The width of the sulcus calcanei was narrowest among type 1 calcanei in the right foot at 0.53 cm. On the left foot, type 2 calcanei had narrower (0.455 cm, range 0.35–0.60) calcaneal sulcus width. Conclusion: Our findings may aid in surgeries of the foot and in providing a link between local calcaneal variations and prevalence of osteoarthritic foot conditions.


Keywords: Calcaneal-facets, Sinus tarsi, Arthritis


Ann Afr Surg. 2020;17(3):112–115


Conflicts of Interest: None

Funding: None

© 2020 Author. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Submitted: 13 September 2019

Revised: 17 January 2020

Accepted: 18 February 2020

Online first: 29 May 2020


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