An Audit of Dorsal Morphology of 30 Adult-Paired Cadaveric Calcaneal Specimen – An Osteological Study

Rebecca Murerwa, Thomas Amuti, Nikita Muuthuri, Anita Wambui, Innocent Ouko,Julius Ogeng’o

Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi

Correspondence to: Thomas Amuti. P.O. Box 30197 – 00100, Nairobi. Email:


Background: The calcaneus exhibits variations of articular facets and calcaneal sulcus width. These variations influence occurrence of osteoarthritic conditions, which have significant prevalence in our setting, and are essential during surgeries involving the foot. Despite this, local data on calcaneal facets remains undocumented.

Materials and methods: Sixty calcanei were obtained from the National Museum of Kenya. The number, type and shapes of their facets were documented and calcaneal sinus width was measured. Images were taken and collected data was represented in tables and figures.

Results: The calcanei had 1-3 articular facets. The common calcaneus type noted was type 1B on the right calcaneus and 1B on the left. The least type was type 4 on the right and 2C on the left. In terms of shape, type 1 and 4 calcanei had non-rounded facets while type 2 had rounded facets. The width of the sulcus calcanei was narrowest among type 1 calcanei in the right foot at 0.53 mm. On the left foot, type 2 calcanei had narrower calcaneal sulcus width, 0.455 mm (0.35 – 0.60).

Conclusion: Our findings may aid in surgeries of the foot and in providing a link between local calcaneal variations and prevalence of osteoarthritic foot conditions.

Keywords: calcaneal-facets, sinus tarsi, arthritis.


Ann Afr Surg. ****; **(*):***


Conflicts of Interest: None

Funding: None

© 2020 Author. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


The Annals of African Surgery is the official publication of the Surgical Society of Kenya.


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