Iodine Excess is a Risk Factor for Goiter Formation

Washington L1, Makumbi T2, Fualal OJ1, Galukande M2

  1. Department of Surgery, Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda

  2. College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda

Correspondence to: Dr. Leonard Washington. P.O Box 7072 Kampala, Uganda. Email: drlwashington@yahoo.



Background: Goiters have been associated with iodine deficiency. Although universal salt iodization in Uganda achieved a household coverage of 95% by 2005, goiter rates are still high. This study investigated the association between iodine excess and goiter. Methods: In a case control study, urinary iodine levels, complete blood count, T3, T4 and TSH levels were determined. Results: We recruited, 60 goiter and 63 non goiter patients. The median urine iodine level for goiter patients was significantly higher than in non-goiter controls. Urinary iodine excretion was sufficient in 43%, more than sufficient in 31% and excess in 10% of cases. There was an association between excess urinary iodine levels and goiter. Conclusion: Urinary iodine excess was significantly associated with occurrence of goiter.


Key Words: Iodine excess, Goiter, Sub Saharan Africa


The Annals of African Surgery is the official publication of the Surgical Society of Kenya.


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